ONCE A CHEATER, ALWAYS A CHEATER?
The adage might be true, a new study suggests
From the FMS Global News Desk of Jeanne Hambleton Released: 21-Aug-2014 Source: Dick Jones Communications Citations American Psychological Association Convention, August 2014
Newswise — Once a cheater, always a cheater? The adage might be true, suggests a University of Denver study.
According to research led by psychology graduate student Kayla Knopp, people who had sex outside their relationships once were 3.7 times more likely to report sexual infidelity again in their next relationships. Victims of infidelity in the past were also more likely to report being cheated on again.
The study, which examined 484 unmarried 18-to-34-year-olds who were in at least two relationships during the time of the study, was presented earlier this month at the American Psychological Association Convention in Washington, D.C.
Knopp also found patterns within physically or psychologically aggressive relationships.
“Respondents who reported being aggressive in relationships were three times more likely to be aggressive in their next relationship – regardless of how aggressive their partner is,” says Knopp.
“We were surprised to see that it was not something you could blame on the couple’s relationship, that they were just in an unhealthy mutual conflict style. Mutuality is not the important component; it is the behavior on its own.”
Victims of aggression in previous relationships were five times more likely to report being victims again in their next relationship.
We like to think we can learn from our mistakes, Knopp says, but this study shows it is hard to do. More research is needed to develop interventions to help couples learn from past experiences and make better relationship choices, she says.
“In the meantime,” she says, “couples can help avoid these patterns in their own lives by talking to one another about their relationship histories, and deciding which behaviors they do – and do not – want to bring with them into the future.”
WHEN IT COMES TO HOW PIZZA LOOKS—CHEESE MATTERS
From the FMS Global News Desk of Jeanne Hambleton Released: 21-Aug-2014 Citations Journal of Food Science
Source Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) Wiley On Line Library
Newswise — CHICAGO—Most consumers have an idea what they want their pizza slice to look like. Golden cheese with that dark toasted-cheese color scattered in distinct blistery patches across the surface with a bit of oil glistening in the valleys.
A new study in the Journal of Food Science, published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), evaluated the pizza baking performance of different cheeses (mozzarella, cheddar, colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and provolone) in conjunction with a new quantifiable evaluation technique to see how their composition and functional differences affected browning and blistering.
The study found that the elasticity, free oil, moisture, water activity and transition temperature all influence the color uniformity of cheeses. Blisters were not formed for cheddar, colby, and Edam cheeses because of their small elasticity.
A sufficient amount of free oil prevents moisture evaporation, and thus less intensive browning on Gruyere and provolone, and hardly at all with Emmental. Therefore, these cheeses can be combined with the easily blistering mozzarella to create a gourmet pizza with a less burnt appearance.
This study is unique because the researchers did not rely on human sensory assessment. Instead, they developed a machine vision technique coupling careful imaging with quantified image analysis to help quantify a description that can be used by pizza manufacturers to make an appealing product for consumers.
The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses.
Different cheeses can be employed on “gourmet” style pizzas in combination with Mozzarella. Based on the findings, cheeses with some attributes can be used to cook pizzas to meet the specific preferences of consumers.
This year marks the 75th anniversary of the Institute of Food Technologists. Since its founding in 1939, IFT has been committed to advancing the science of food, both today and tomorrow. Our non-profit scientific society—more than 18,000 members from more than 100 countries—brings together food scientists, technologists and related professionals from academia, government and industry. For more information, please visit ift.org.
LEARNING TO PLAY THE PIANO? SLEEP ON IT!
Subcortical brain regions play a key role in the memorization process during sleep
From the FMS Global News Desk of Jeanne Hambleton Released: 21-Aug-2014
Source : Universite de Montreal Citations NeuroImage, May-2014
Newswise — According to researchers at the University of Montreal, the regions of the brain below the cortex play an important role as we train our bodies’ movements and, critically, they interact more effectively after a night of sleep.
While researchers knew that sleep helped us the learn sequences of movements (motor learning), it was not known why.
“The subcortical regions are important in information consolidation, especially information linked to a motor memory trace. When consolidation level is measured after a period of sleep, the brain network of these areas functions with greater synchrony, that is, we observe that communication between the various regions of this network is better optimized. The opposite is true when there has been no period of sleep,” said Karen Debas, neuropsychologist at the University of Montreal and leader author of the study. A network refers to multiple brain areas that are activated simultaneously.
To achieve these results, the researchers, led by Dr. Julien Doyon, Scientific Director of the Functional Neuroimaging Unit of the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal Research Centre, taught a group of subjects a new sequence of piano-type finger movements on a box. The brains of the subjects were observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging during their performance of the task before and after a period of sleep. Meanwhile, the same test was performed by a control group at the beginning and end of the day, without a period of sleep.
The researchers had already shown that the putamen, a central part of the brain, was more active in subjects who had slept. Furthermore, they had observed improved performance of the task after a night of sleep and not the simple passage of daytime. Using a brain connectivity analysis technique, which identifies brain networks and measures their integration levels, they found that one network emerged from the others—the cortico-striatal network—composed of cortical and subcortical areas, including the putaman and associated cortical regions.
“After a night of sleep, we found that this network was more integrated than the others, that is, interaction among these regions was greater when consolidation had occurred. A night of sleep seems to provide active protection of this network, which the passage of daytime does not provide. Moreover, only a night of sleep results in better performance of the task,” Debas said.
These results provide insight into the role of sleep in learning motor skills requiring new movement sequences and reveal, for the first time, greater interaction within the cortico-striatal system after a consolidation phase following sleep.
“Our findings open the door to other research opportunities, which could lead us to better understand the mechanisms that take place during sleep and ensure better interaction between key regions of the brain. Indeed, several other studies in my laboratory are examining the role of sleep spindles—brief physiological events during non-rapid eye movement sleep—in the process of motor memory trace consolidation,” Doyon said.
“Ultimately, we believe that we will better be able to explain and act on memory difficulties presented by certain clinical populations who have sleeping problems and help patients who are relearning motor sequences in rehabilitation centres,” Debas said.
About the study:
The article Off-line consolidation of motor sequence learning results in greater integration within a cortico-striatal functional network was published in the journal NeuroImage on May 17, 2014 (online publication). The study was led by Karen Debas, under the supervision of Julien Doyon. Both are affiliated with the Department of Psychology at the University of Montreal. Julie Carrier, Marc Barakat, Guillaume Marrelec, Pierre Belec, and Abdallah Hadj Tahar, researchers at the University of Montreal; Avi Karni, researcher at the University of Haifa; Leslie G. Ungerleider, researcher at the National Institute of Mental Health (USA); and Habib Benali, researcher at the Université Paris VI, also contributed to these studies. Their research was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Fonds de recherche du Québec en santé.
(Can this be why I always ‘sleep on’ important emails and letters before sending them next day. They make more sense the next morning and this must be due to my brainwaves. Fancy that.) Back tomorrow all being well. Jeanne